Offering you a Sea of Oceanographic Solutions
Introduction Teledyne Technologies’ growth in the marine industry began with the acquisition of RD Instruments in 2005, quickly followed by Benthos in 2006. These two entities joined Teledyne Geophysical Instruments, which was already a long-standing Teledyne company. With the cooperation and foresight of these three companies, Teledyne Marine was formed. Since those initial acquisitions, Teledyne has gone on to acquire twenty-oneadditional marine organizations, as well as several product lines and technology partnerships, propelling Teledyne into one of the leading brands within the marine industry.
Teledyne Technologies Incorporated is a publicly-held company that provides a wide array of sophisticated electronic components, instruments and communications products for defense, industrial, aeronautical and environmental applications. The company is structured to serve niche market segments where performance, precision and reliability are crucial. Thus, it’s really no surprise that Teledyne set its sights on the marine industry back in 2005. Thisindustry’s unique technology, proven products, and innovative, talented individuals are exactly what Teledyne aspires to add to its team. Teledyne’s philosophy is to select and acquire key companies that are highly successful in their own right, with core technologies and capabilities that lend themselves to co-operative development and shared, consistent growth and technology based, “solution” advancement. Each company, while retaining the attributes of its successful business, is able to leverage the expanded science, technology, distribution channels, and manufacturing capabilities of the collective Teledyne entity; thus making each organization more relevant and valuable to their customer base.
The Teledyne Marine companies service a wide array of markets and applications, with the oceanographic marketing being a common focus. Virtually every Teledyne Marine company provides an innovative product or technology that’s used to enhance this critical fi eld of study.
With hundreds of products available to serve oceanographic applications, Teledyne Marine’s offerings canbest be organized into four categories: 1. Sensors– oceanographic data collection devices 2. Systems – oceanographic data platforms 3. Navigation– oceanographic platform tracking 4. Communication and Infrastructure – oceanographic interconnect/data/powertransmission Sensors: Oceanographic Data Collection Teledyne Marine offers a wide array of highly innovative, field proven sensors designed to collect critical data regarding the health and welfare of our world’s oceans and its vast resources.
• Ocean Current and Wave Measurements In 1982, RD Instruments developed and delivered the industry’s fi rst self-contained Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP),a revolutionary device capable of profiling currents at 128 individual depths in the water column. Prior to this advancement, scientists were only able to calculate the speed and direction of currents at a few depths in the water column where current meters were located. The ADCP is arguably the biggest game-changer to date for oceanographers tasked with studying this highly dynamic physical environment. Over the past 30+years, Teledyne RDI has developed a full line of ADCPs capable of collecting critical ocean current data, as well as wave height and direction for a wide array of oceanographic applications, including: climate change research, current modeling, biological / fi sheries studies, ocean observatories, recreational activities, and weather studies and prediction --just to name a few. ADCPs can be used to collect data from environments ranging from less than one meter of water to full ocean depth, and can be deployed on the surface, the seafloor or anywhere in between.
• Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) Measurements A CTD is used to measure the three parameters necessary to determine salinity, density and speed of sound: conductivity, temperature and depth. CTDs measurements have perhaps the longest history and are the most ubiquitous of all oceanographic sensors.Like ADCPs, CTDs are used throughout the world’s oceans for a variety of purposes, including: environmental monitoring, fisheries studies, hydrographic surveys, ocean observatories, climate change research, and ocean modeling. Teledyne RD Instruments offers a full line of Citadel CTD products which can be used alone, or in concert with ADCPs or other oceanographic sensors.
• Underway Conductivity, Temperature and Depth MeasurementsUnlike standard CTDs, which are installed on the ocean floor or within vehicle or platform, Underway CTDs / profiling systems are used, as the name suggests, while avessel is underway. This product, offered by Teledyne Oceanscience, eliminates the need to stop the vessel for upper ocean conductivity temperature, depths profi ling activities. Data quality similar to stationary casts can now be obtained while fully underway, allowing researchers and surveyors to collect valuable data profi les with no loss of costly ship time.
• Seafloor / Object Imaging Underwater imaging systems can be used for a number of oceanographic applications, including: investigating ship wrecks, monitoring pollution, tracking whales and dolphins,and studying fi sh stock. The Teledyne Marine Acoustic Imaging companies offer a wide array of products for multi-beam surveysand sub-bottom profiling while operating from surface, towed or remotely operated, or autonomous vehicles. • Seafloor Mapping Multibeam and single beam echosounders manufactured by Teledyne RESON, Atlas Hydrographic and Odom Hydrographic are used to map the seafl oor in water depths from 0.05 meter down to full ocean water depths. These charts are used to support a variety of applications. • Object imaging Imaging sonars are used to monitor infrastructure below the water line and is crucial to ensuring it is well maintained. RESON and BlueView manufacture sonars, which can be deployed from a fi xed or moving platform to provide a high detail view of the condition of these structures.
• Underwater Forward looking AUVs and ROVs use forward looking sonars for obstacle avoidance and inspection. RESON and BlueView offer a complement of products with a choice of high resolution, short and long range, and low power confi gurations to meet most applications.
• Sub bottom profiling Sub-bottom profi ling systems are used to identify and characterize layers of sediment or rock under the seafloor. Teledyne Atlas Hydrographic and Odom Hydrographic offer subbottom profiling systems that can be installed onboard large research vessels and/or deployed via a towed or autonomous vehicle, depending upon your application.
Systems: Oceanographic Data Platforms In our fi rst section, we discussed the Teledyne sensors that can be used to collect oceanographic data, but how are those instruments deployed? The Teledyne Marine companies facilitate this need with a full line of systems and platforms that can be utilized to deploy anything from a single sensor to a full suite of sensors, depending upon the data desired. • Bottom Mounted Frames Bottom mounted frames are used todeploy oceanographic instrumentation on the seafl oor. Teledyne Oceanscience manufactures the Sea Spider, which is designed for the deployment of ADCPs, transponders, cameras, CTDs and virtually any other type of compact oceanographic instrumentation package – all within a single structure. The Sea Spidercan also come equipped with a pop-up buoy for diverless recovery. • Moorings Oceanographic sensors can also be deployed via surface or sub-surface moorings. Teledyne Benthos offers a wide array of solutions for oceanographic moorings, including glass flotation spheres for buoyancy, acoustic releases for mooring recovery, and acoustic modems for subsea communications. These items can be used independently, or together, for applications such as the tsunami warning systems, which use glass floats and acoustic releases on a fixed buoy and an undersea bottom pressure recorder (BPR), which records slight variances in ocean pressure. These components are linked via acoustic modems, which provide wireless data transmission to the surface.
• Profiling Floats Profiling floats are a versatile tool for oceanography. Perhaps best known is Teledyne Webb Research’s APEX float, an autonomous drifting profi ler used to measure subsurface currents and make profi le measurements in the global Argo array. The fl oat descends to drift at an assigned depth for up to nine days, then quickly descends to 2000m and ascends to the surface while collecting data. APEX Argo carries a CTD to collect temperature and salinity profi les; other sensor options are available. While on the surface, the APEX floatcan be geo-located using GPS, and telemetersdata via the Argos or Iridium satellite communication systems. Iridium provides two-way communication to update mission and data collection parameters. APEX floats are frequentlyused as platforms for other purposes,such as measuring currents and biogeochemistry studies. APEX Deep is the only commercial profiling fl oat able to reach 6,000m depth.
• Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) are well-established tools for ocean science. They allow operations beyond typical diver depths and in hazardous conditions such as under ice. Teledyne Benthos and Teledyne SeaBotix offer a broad range of ROVs that can be used to perform oceanographic tasks including aquaculture monitoring, marine life studies, chemical and biological sampling, and marine archaeological research.
Teledyne’s ROVs can be outfi tted with any number of industry standard sensors to collect a wide array of data. Some Teledyne family sensors commonly used on ROVs include Bowtech cameras and lights and BlueView imaging sonars. • Gliders An underwater glider is an autonomous underwater vehicle that uses small changes in its buoyancyin conjunction with wings to provide a long-endurance ocean monitoring platform with mission lengths measured in months rather than hours. A thruster option ensures the typical “yo-yo” dive pattern can be augmented with other maneuvers as required.Teledyne Webb Research’s Slocum G2 glider is a highly versatile remote sensing vehicle used for ocean research and monitoring. The long range and duration capabilities of Slocum gliders make them ideally suited for water column observation at the regional scale. Slocum gliders can operate on preprogrammed routes, surfacing to transmit data while downloading new instructions via the Iridium satellite system, at a substantial cost savings compared to traditional vessels. Modest capital acquisition and operation and maintenance costs enable fl eets of gliders to study and map dynamic (temporal and spatial) ocean features in entirely new ways.
Slocum gliders can support a wide array of Teledyne and third-party ocean sensors. Typical options include CTDs, ADCPs, and optical biological and environmental instruments.
Teledyne RD Instruments and Teledyne Webb Research have also collaborated on the development and integration of a new ADCP for the Slocum glider called the Explorer ADCP. Navigation: Oceanographic Platform Tracking As noted in the previous section, the Teledyne companies offer a variety of remote platforms designed to house any number of oceanographic sensors, whether they be Teledyne, or other innovative solutions. The challenge then becomes navigating these systems within the depths of the unknown. To be viable, underwater vehicles need to understand where they have been, where they are going, and how to pinpoint an exact location of interest. There are many tools and techniques to address this need, but perhaps the best known methods include Doppler aided navigation. • Doppler Velocity Logs (DVLs) A DVL is a multi-function acoustic sensor that provides highly accurate velocity information. In addition to providing speed over ground and speed through water, the instrument uses other sensors to provide position updates for both subsea and surface platforms. The DVL provides information by collecting, compiling, and processing a full range of data parameters which include: velocity, depth, pitch and roll, altitude, heading, and temperature. The DVL can be used as a stand-alone navigation system or incorporated into an existing marine navigation system to signifi cantly enhance system performance. Teledyne RD Instruments designed and manufactured the industry’s first BroadBand DVL back in 1994, and has since gone on to provide a full line of DVLs for precision navigation onboard AUVs, ROVs, towed vehicles and surface vessels.
• Inertial Navigation Systems For operations requiring autonomous and accurate navigation, a DVL can be integrated into an Inertial Navigation System. An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers) and rotation sensors (gyroscopes) to continuously calculate via heading, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object. Teledyne TSS and Teledyne CDL have many years of experience providing INS solutions to the industry. Communication / Infrastructure: Oceanographic Connections and Data/Power Transmission Thus far, we’ve addressed the sensors, platforms, and navigation aids that may be required for oceanographic applications, but how does it all come together? That’s where Teledyne Marine’s interconnect, power and communication solutions come in. • Interconnect and Power Solutions: Each of Teledyne Marine’s instruments and platforms require a series of highly robust and reliable standard and custom electrical, fiber optic, and/or hybrid electro-optic connector solutions. The Teledyne Marine Interconnect Solutions companies, which are now comprised of AG Geophysical Products, DGO, Impulse, ODI, and Storm Cable, supply many of these mission critical components to the Teledyne companies and to the industry as a whole.
Interconnect solutions include wet-mate, splash mate and dry-mate connectors, differential pressure penetrators, cable assemblies, cable terminations, and custom-engineered encapsulation and molding. Teledyne Marine’s Interconnect companies not only provide products, but extensive custom design, engineered solutions, and test capabilities, which are second to none in the industry.
• Data Transmission Solutions: In addition thehard-wire cable solutions offered by Teledyne Marine Interconnect Solutions, Teledyne Benthos offers oceanographic customers the option of wireless data transmission via theirwide range of acoustic modems. Wireless data transfer can offer a signifi cant cost savings over underwater cabling. It also offers the option of extending the reach of cabled networks, integrating wireless nodes to transfer data back to cabled networks. Benthos modems are available for operations in shallow or deep water environments and in a variety of frequency ranges. Modem applications include remote monitoring of oceanographic sensors, command of AUVs, and subsea networking.
• Conclusion As the fi eld of oceanographic research continues to expand in importance and scope, Teledyne Marine will continue its quest to deliver the highest value, most innovative products and services available. As new and exciting challenges and questions continue to arise, Teledyne Marine looks forward to partnering with our industry to deliver the tools and technology required to unlock the secrets of our world’s oceans.
Mapping Subsurface Ocean Currents
Predicting big things for the Arctic
Unmanned Missions in Harsh Environments